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Heraldry in the USA
An American Heraldic Primer
by Philip D. Blanton, MA
Supporters, sometimes called tenants if describing human beings, are animals, humans, or other objects that are part of the overall achievement, but are placed outside the shield to hold up, or support, the shield. There can be any number of supporters, but the most commonly seen are either individual supporters, placed behind or underneath the shield, or in pairs, placed on either side of the shield.
Certain heraldic traditions, such as those in Great Britain, restrict the use of supporters to the nobility, persons holding certain ranks within chivalric orders, persons with hereditary rights to supporters borne by their ancestors, cities, towns, and even large companies. There are no such restrictions in the United States, but it is generally recommended that personal arms not assume supporters unless they can show a hereditary right to ancestral supporters. The assumption of supporters by governmental, educational, and corporate bodies is generally accepted in the United States.
Along with the crested helm, the medieval tournament also gave rise to organized groups of knights and men-at-arms that called themselves tourney companies, societies, fraternities, and orders. Each of these groups had its own type of insignia that indicated membership or affiliation with the group. Heralds began including the ribbons, chains, and badges of these organizations around, under, or near each member's armorial display. This is most frequently seen with the various orders of chivalry where the member encircles, or suspends from, his or her shield the ribbon, chain, or garter that is befitting his or her rank within the order. Each organization has its own rules and regulations outlining what are proper heraldic practices with respect to its insignia. This practice survives today and also includes decorations conferred by governments.
Appropriate American decorations that may also be displayed with an armorial achievement are those honors and awards that include wearable insignia, such as a sash, neck ribbon, breast ribbon, star or badge. Decorations normally included with American heraldic displays include, in order of precedence: decorations awarded by or in the name of the President, orders and decorations granted by foreign sovereigns, other federal decorations, and state decorations. Note that this does not include insignia such as campaign medals, unit citations, qualification badges, rank insignia, or other such emblems.
Although the United States does not have any state or chivalric orders, armigers who are members of foreign state or chivalric orders may, of course, display the insignia appropriate to their rank within the order in their achievement of arms. Armigers should be cautioned that some organizations under the guise of a chivalric order may be fraudulent and not recognized by any legitimate state.
Insignia in the form of a sash, chain, or collar should be displayed encircling the shield. Neck ribbons should be displayed as a ribbon from behind the shield with its pendant hanging below the shield. Other decorations worn on the chest should be displayed with the ribbon and pendant hanging from the bottom of the shield. Stars and similar badges of higher degrees of awards and honors should be displayed behind the shield and thoroughly visible around the edges of the shield.
There are several types of headgear that one might find on or above a heraldic shield. To include these on a shield is reasonable, but to display them in an achievement above the shield is inappropriate if the armiger has no legitimate claim to be what they represent. Some of these indicate nobility and their use should be avoided by American armigers. Others denote certain professions and should only be used by armigers in those occupations. Still others may be used by anyone desiring a little extra heraldic adornment.
Heraldic hats come in many shapes and sizes. The chapeau, or cap of maintenance, is typically a red velvet cap, lined in ermine, and turned back on the bottom. It can also be of other colors and furs. The significance of the cap of maintenance is debated and varies from country to country. A cap of similar construction, the electoral bonnet, was used by the prince- and bishop-electors of the Holy Roman Empire.
Some heraldic hats are indicative of offices and degrees held. The lord mayor’s cap is a cylindrical hat made of brown fur and might be seen above the arms of some British and Irish cities' mayors. A cap of justice is a flat cap with two guards of braid in the livery colors of a Scottish barony and was formerly authorized for baillies of baronial courts in that country. The doctoral cap, a black velvet tam with gold cords, has been suggested as a heraldic accessory to be used by holders of a doctoral degree, although it is not generally used in English-speaking countries. The cap of Liberty, also known as an Albanian cap or a Phrygian cap, is a symbol of liberty and republicanism and is generally considered the hat of the common people. Again, its use as a heraldic accessory has been proposed, but the idea has not been generally accepted.
Probably the most widely used heraldic hats in the United States are those borne by members of the clergy, particularly in the Roman Catholic Church but also to some degree in the Episcopal (Anglican) and Orthodox communions. The galero, used heraldically by Catholic clergy, is a wide-brimmed, flat hat that comes in a variety of colors and with varying numbers of tassels indicating the user's rank and position. Anglican clerics below the rank of bishop use hats similar to the galero, while an Anglican bishops usually ensign his or her shield with a miter. (Roman Catholic bishops of the Latin Rite no longer use miters with their personal arms.) The Pope's arms are distinguished with a unique Papal tiara or, more recently, a special style of miter resembling the tiara.
There are also various types of natural headgear often displayed in heraldry, known as chaplets, or alternatively, garlands or wreaths. The type of flowers or leaves the chaplet is composed of is normally specified. If this is not described, then the chaplet is shown as a circle of leaves with four equidistant flowers. If the chaplet is made of laurel leaves, it is then identified as a crown triumphant, representing the ancient Roman award given to military and athletic champions. The civic crown is a chaplet made of oak leaves and acorns and represents the ancient Roman crown given as an award to civilians.
There are certain crowns that may be displayed above a shield without implying nobility. The mural crown is often depicted above the arms of a city, denoting its status as such. Ducal, antique (or eastern), celestial, and vallary (or palisado) crowns are often seen in personal arms and crests and carry no special meanings. Naval crowns are often found on arms of persons involved in sailing or with the navy and, similarly, astral crowns on those affiliated with flying or the air force. There are also any number of crowns made up of diverse objects that are blazoned so. For example, a crown of maple leaves, or a maltese crown, which consists of a number of maltese crosses atop a metal band.
The following crowns, and their descriptions, specifically imply nobility and their use as an external ornament should be avoided by Americans. The crown of a British Duke consists of eight strawberry leaves. That of a Marquess has four strawberry leaves interspersed with four silver balls. An Earl’s crown uses eight strawberry leaves interspersed with eight silver balls on long spikes. A Viscount bears a circlet with sixteen silver balls and a Baron, six. Other countries with a history of titled nobility have equivalent systems of coronets. The royal, Hanover, Charlemagne, and imperial crowns are specific crowns of state. The crown of the King of Arms is used only by the English Kings of Arms.